Siting of major facilities.


When selecting the best site for each venue, there are critical factors to consider. These are transportation, utilities, street configuration, climatic conditions, available area, market analysis, and politics.



Available transportation modes (taxi, bus, train, subway, ferry, etc.) and the travel distance from the proposed site to distribution stations need to be identified. During the Olympics, the use of private automobiles is discouraged due to security and traffic issues. Allowance for adequate decompression zones to spread crowds during the peak demands on these modes is necessary to maintain appropriate safety. During the Olympics in Atlanta, accommodations for peak demands were underestimated. The three MARTA (subway) stations, each dispersed two miles from the stadium, were overwhelmed by crowds after the Opening Ceremonies. In Sydney, a train station specifically built to support the development at Homebush Bay is located approximately 500 meters from the stadium, providing staging areas to alleviate crowd surges. In Athens, Greece, a subway system is under construction to accommodate the anticipated crowds. Providing alternative entertainment, such as restaurants, retail stops and bars at strategic locations can help to distract and divert a portion of the crowd. This may spread out the crowd and sequence the demand on transportation, helping to enhance the overall experience.











The existing public utility infrastructure must be assessed to determine capacities available to support large facilities. Additionally, existing communication and power systems may not meet the technological requirements for the Olympics, thus requiring extensive rework and upgrade of existing utilities. The Olympics can serve as an impetus to improve existing infrastructure and modernize city amenities. Cities contemplating the Olympics must anticipate these infrastructure improvements in its master plan to reduce their impact.


Street System

A venue located near the city center will impact the existing traffic network. Planning must occur to allow athletes, officials, media, and VIPs must have dedicated routes to the facility to ensure timely arrival for events and separation from the public. Also, some roadways may be closed to public access for security concerns, which may impact access of goods and services into the city center.

Light Rail System—St. Louis, USA

Homebush Bay Shuttle, Sydney, Australia

Olympic Park located at far end of street.

City streets closed to accommodate large crowds.